1- Asses your students’ prior knowledge and skills:
Sometimes students know more than we think they do. Sometimes they have misconceptions about the content. The only way to know what information that students bring to a course is to test them to collect information that reveals their current levels of knowledge and understanding. That information is very important to precise the information of the subject matter being studied you should focus on and the suitable methods of TESL you should use.
2- Don’t assume that students know how to learn:
Students must have an idea about appropriate learning strategies and made aware of the strategies that they use. It’s your job to help them know that.
3- Discover and address attitudes and emotions that hinder learning:
Teachers must acknowledge that learning, motivation and engagement are affected by attitudes and emotions. What students believe about themselves and about the subject matter being studied affect their motivation and performance. If teachers ignore the role of attitudes and emotions, that will affect learning outcomes.
4- Design your lessons in the way that connect to your students’ personal and academic goals:
That will enhance motivation and engagement. Students need to see how what they are being asked to learn is relevant to their goals and future plans. Knowing what students care about makes it possible to plan lessons that connect with students and engage them in learning.
5- Examine your students’ views about education and considering how those views influence their learning experiences:
Students come to school with different beliefs about knowledge and have different expectations of their teachers. Students are diverse. They have different cultural backgrounds. Again, knowing what students believe and expect makes it easier to plan meaningful learning experiences.
6- Treat students as apprentices who need assistance in learning the language, ways of thinking and inquiry methods:
Students need to be taught and must be given the opportunity to make connections between the course content and their own experiences.
7- Challenge students:
You need to do that to apply, integrate, evaluate and construct knowledge. You can do that by engaging students in complex problem-solving activities. Students should not only be knowledge consumer but also be knowledge producer.
8- Learn about learning:
Discuss with your colleagues the best ways of students’ learning and how knowledge about students’ learning can be used in lesson planning.