Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is based on the main goal of involving students in meaningful communication using the target language. There are many activity types that can be used in the classroom to achieve that goal. The following are the main ones of them.
- Communicative activities:
In these activities students should use the language in real-life communicative situations where real information is exchanged and authentic language is used. In addition, the language used is not predictable.
E.g. when asking about directions and how to get to certain places; the nearest bus stop, café or train station.
- Information-gap activities:
These activities achieve the goal of people’s communication which is getting the information they don’t possess. Students are encouraged in the classroom to do this kind of activities to communicate meaningfully to obtain information.
E.g. divide students into pairs to practise role-playing. Each student has information that the other doesn’t know. One student asks for information on train departures, prices, the time, … etc.
- Task-completion activities (puzzles, games, map-reading, … etc.)
In these tasks the focus is on using the language resources to complete a task.
- Information-gathering activities (survey, interviews, searches, … etc.)
In these activities students are required to use the language resources to collect information.
- Opinion-sharing activities:
In these activities students share their values, opinions and beliefs such as listing the most important qualities of a good teacher or the best friend.
- Information-transfer activities:
In these activities students take information from one form and represent it in a different form. E.g. reading information about a subject and represent it in a graph or a map.
- Reasoning-gap activities:
In these activities students derive or infer information from given information.
E.g. deriving information from the classroom timetable.