Approach is a broad term that reflects a certain model based on a research or theory (e.g. Communicative approach) while a method is a set of procedures compatible with an approach (e.g. Silent way method). A method is more specific than an approach, but a technique is the narrowest term which refers to learning activities in the classroom used in one or more methods (e.g. Using cooperative leaning activity).
Here are the five English language teaching approaches that prevailed in the 20th century and are still working up till nowadays.
1. Grammar Translation Approach:
Instructions are given in native language.
Using English is little.
Focusing on grammar rather than English language functions.
Setting difficult texts for reading from the beginning.
Doing translation from English into mother tongue is frequent.
Using English for communication is not encouraged.
English is not spoken by the teacher in the classroom.
2. Comprehension Based Approach:
English acquisition appears when learner comprehends meaningful input.
Listening comprehension is very important besides speaking, reading and writing.
Listening to meaningful speech is very important.
Speaking is postponed until students are ready.
Error correction is unnecessary, understanding is most important.
Native teachers are preferable in teaching.
Audiotapes and videotapes are also used in the classroom.
3. Cognitive Approach:
English is rule governed not habit formation.
Individualized instruction is done.
Grammar taught both deductively (rules first, practice later) and inductively (rules after practice).
Pronunciation isn’t emphasized.
Reading and writing are developed as well as listening and speaking.
Vocabulary instruction is important especially in intermediate and advanced levels.
Errors are inevitable and useful for learning.
Teacher must have general ability and proficiency of English language.
4. Situational Approach:
Spoken language is primary.
English is practiced orally. After an oral base in lexical and grammatical forms reading and writing comes.
English should be used in situations.
Most general and useful lexical items are to be ensured.
Grammatical structures are graded from simple to difficult.
Lexical and grammatical items should be given in situations.
5. Communicative Approach:
The goal is learner ability to communicate.
purpose of language is communication.
Content of language and social functions are mainly focused not just linguistic structures.
Transferring meaning in pairs and groups.
Adjusting the use of English in different social contexts by role plays and dramatizations.
Authentic materials are used.
All skills from the beginning are developed.
Teacher primarily facilitate the communication secondarily correct errors.
Teacher uses the target language fluently and appropriately.
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There are a number of reasons that cause reading comprehension to fail. Students should be aware of these reasons and then identify the solutions for them applying the appropriate reading strategies that can cause success to reading comprehension. The following are the main factors that hinder reading comprehension:
Limited perceptual span.
Faulty eye movement.
Faulty attention and concentration habits.
Lack of practice.
Lack of interest.
Poor evaluation of important and less important parts.
Reasonable wholesome remembering rather than selective remembering.
In addition, there are some hindering factors related to the readers’ habits and others are text related. Go to the Printables library and read the printable that shows these factors and how to deal with them to gain positive results in reading comprehension tasks.
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* What should be done before starting a reading lesson.
* Reading comprehension strategies and activities.
* How to work with a reading text.
* How to plan a reading lesson (with a model reading lesson plan).
* How to develop your students’ reading comprehension so as to be efficient & advanced.
By selling this eBook, you will not only have control on teaching reading comprehension in the classroom but also you will support me with little money to continue my mission of helping ESL/EFL teachers teach English language more effectively.
I’ve decided to write this eBook to exchange my experience with the teachers on the techniques they should use in the classroom, the guidelines they should follow and the reading tasks that can get most students to read in ESL/EFL classes with ease and in a fairly short time.
The main ideas tackled in this eBook are:
* What reading is.
* Approaches to teaching beginning reading.
* Stages of teaching beginning reading.
* Sample activities for beginning reading.
* Guideline before beginning to teach reading in ESL/EFL.
By selling this eBook, you will not only learn how to teach beginning reading to your students in the classroom but also you will support me with little money to continue my mission of helping ESL/EFL teachers teach English language more effectively.