1. Setting the Lesson Objectives
It’s important to write SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timed) objectives for your lessons.
Here are some examples of this kind of objectives.
Once you’ve have set your objectives, you need to think of the context or situations where the language is used. It’s the context and the situations that will be used in the “Study” stage when presenting a new language.
If the context is clear, it shows the students when and how the new language is used. The context could be from a listening or reading text, it could come from the students themselves or the teacher can provide it.
Now that the initial planning stage is complete, it’s time to start looking at how to engage the students.
2. Starting the Lesson (The Engage Stage)
Every lesson has a beginning. And like the beginning of a book or a film, if it doesn’t interest the reader, viewer or in our case, the student, then it may not be successful. The teacher should try to engage the students from the very start of the lesson. A good way of doing this is through activities called warmers or ice-breakers.
What are Warmers and what are their Features?
3. Presenting the New Language (The Study Stage)
For example, when planning to present a new language form, the teacher needs to present:
- What the form actually means.
- When the form is actually used.
- How it is made.
- How it is pronounced and written.
- How negatives and questions are formed.
* Once those points are clear for the teacher, he/she has to think of the ways to pass on that knowledge to students.
* Only telling the students what something means and how it is used is not usually a good way for the students to learn.
* There is a wide range of interesting activities, techniques, and materials for presenting a new language. Most involve exposing the students to the language through written texts and dialogues.
Here are some ways that are commonly used to present the new language:
- Real objects.
- Audio files.
- Video clips
Using different approaches to presenting the new language helps to create a variety that is so important to:
- Engage students and get them interested in the lesson.
- Suit different learning styles of students.
- Make learning occur and fixed for a long time in students’ minds.
- Achieve effective class management.
4. Practice (The Activate Stage)
Once the new language has been introduced to the students, they need to have the opportunity to try it out to become familiar with it and get their tongues and brains around it. There are two main kinds of practice:
Two Main Kinds of Practice
5. Finishing the Lesson
Like you start the lesson you should finish it. A good ending of a lesson is as important as a good start.
It’s important when ending the lesson to:
- Leave a good impression for the students to make them look forward to the next lesson.
- Give them some sense of achievement.
Some teachers like to give a recap of the lesson of the day, highlighting the main points and the objectives achieved – directly or through elicitation. This is a good way to consolidate the language point and give the students a clear sense of what they have accomplished.
It’s also common for teachers to finish the session with activities similar to warmers. The aim here is not to warm up the students but to round off the lesson with an enjoyable game or activity.
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