Ten Skills a Primary Language Teacher Must Have

primary teacher

A Primary Language Teacher Must have the ability to:

1. understand well the characteristics of young learners whom he works with.

2. link his understanding of young learners with the teaching method and assessment procedures that he uses in the classroom.

3. adapt or create the most suitable learning environment for young learners.

4. use, adapt or create the most suitable resources and materials for young learners.

5. encourage children all the time and give them support and a feeling of achievement.

6. give them a good model for everything that happen in the classroom.

7. create a friendly classroom atmosphere in which children are encouraged to interact and express themselves freely without fear of making errors.

8. act, tell stories, sing, dramatize conversations, correct errors, praise high achievers and encourage lower ones.

9. use, adapt or create meaningful and purposeful language activities in which most children are involved.

10. manage the classroom well following a specific system.

Now it’s your turn, tell me one more ability that you consider a must for primary language teacher.   

Five ELT Approaches Working From the 20th Century Up Till Now

Approach is a broad term that reflects a certain model based on a research or theory (e.g. Communicative approach) while a method is a set of procedures compatible with an approach (e.g. Silent way method). A method is more specific than an approach, but a technique is the narrowest term which refers to learning activities in the classroom used in one or more methods (e.g. Using cooperative leaning activity).

Here are the five English language teaching approaches that prevailed in the 20th century and are still working up till nowadays.

1. Grammar Translation Approach:

  • Instructions are given in native language.
  • Using English is little.
  • Focusing on grammar rather than English language functions.
  • Setting difficult texts for reading from the beginning.
  • Doing translation from English into mother tongue is frequent.
  • Using English for communication is not encouraged.
  • English is not spoken by the teacher in the classroom.

2. Comprehension Based Approach:

  • English acquisition appears when learner comprehends meaningful input.
  • Listening comprehension is very important besides speaking, reading and writing.
  • Listening to meaningful speech is very important.
  • Speaking is postponed until students are ready.
  • Error correction is unnecessary, understanding is most important.
  • Native teachers are preferable in teaching.
  • Audiotapes and videotapes are also used in the classroom.

3. Cognitive Approach:

  • English is rule governed not habit formation.
  • Individualized instruction is done.
  • Grammar taught both deductively (rules first, practice later) and inductively (rules after practice).
  • Pronunciation isn’t emphasized.
  • Reading and writing are developed as well as listening and speaking.
  • Vocabulary instruction is important especially in intermediate and advanced levels.
  • Errors are inevitable and useful for learning.
  • Teacher must have general ability and proficiency of English language.

4. Situational Approach:

  • Spoken language is primary.
  • English is practiced orally. After an oral base in lexical and grammatical forms reading and writing comes.
  • English should be used in situations.
  • Most general and useful lexical items are to be ensured.
  • Grammatical structures are graded from simple to difficult.
  • Lexical and grammatical items should be given in situations.

5. Communicative Approach:

  • The goal is learner ability to communicate.
  • purpose of language is communication.
  • Content of language and social functions are mainly focused not just linguistic structures.
  • Transferring meaning in pairs and groups.
  • Adjusting the use of English in different social contexts by role plays and dramatizations.
  • Authentic materials are used.
  • All skills from the beginning are developed.
  • Teacher primarily facilitate the communication secondarily correct errors.
  • Teacher uses the target language fluently and appropriately.

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Teaching Listening to ESL/EFL Learners

Teaching Grammar to ESL/EFL Learners

Teaching Beginning Reading to ESL/EFL Learners

Teaching Reading Comprehension to ESL/EFL Learners

Useful Printables to ESL/EFL Teachers

Factors Hindering Reading Comprehension

There are a number of reasons that cause reading comprehension to fail. Students should be aware of these reasons and then identify the solutions for them applying the appropriate reading strategies that can cause success to reading comprehension. The following are the main factors that hinder reading comprehension:

  • Limited perceptual span.
  • Faulty eye movement.
  • Faulty attention and concentration habits.
  • Lack of practice.
  • Lack of interest.
  • Poor evaluation of important and less important parts.
  • Reasonable wholesome remembering rather than selective remembering.

In addition, there are some hindering factors related to the readers’ habits and others are text related.  Go to the Printables library  and read the printable that shows these factors and how to deal with them to gain positive results in reading comprehension tasks.


Reminder: Printables library is password protected.  If you are one of my blog followers, you have already got the password to access my printables library for FREE. If you are not, and want to read my printables for FREE, Join my email list to receive the password to the library. I update my printables’ library regularly with new, focused and effective ELT printables.

Ready for FREE printables?


Moreover, If you are interested in how to teach reading comprehension and want practical tips to do so in the classroom, you can buy my latest eBook: Teaching Reading Comprehension to ESL/EFL Learners: A Practical Classroom Guide With Sample Reading Lesson Plans. Although it costs little but it includes much benefit especially for ESL/EFL teachers who search for practical steps that engage their students in reading and produce positive results. The main ideas tackled in this eBook are:

* The nature of reading comprehension.

* What should be done before starting a reading lesson.

* Reading comprehension strategies and activities.

* How to work with a reading text.

* How to plan a reading lesson (with a model reading lesson plan).

* How to develop your students’ reading comprehension so as to be efficient & advanced.

By selling this eBook, you will not only have control on teaching reading comprehension in the classroom but also you will support me with little money to continue my mission of helping ESL/EFL teachers teach English language more effectively.

Buy This eBook


In addition, you still have the opportunity to get my eBook “Teaching Beginning Reading to ESL/EFL Learners” for FREE before launching it for low price on 25 Jan. 2019.

I’ve decided to write this eBook to exchange my experience with the teachers on the techniques they should use in the classroom, the guidelines they should follow and the reading tasks that can get most students to read in ESL/EFL classes with ease and in a fairly short time.

The main ideas tackled in this eBook are:

* What reading is.

* Approaches to teaching beginning reading.

* Stages of teaching beginning reading.

* Sample activities for beginning reading.

* Guideline before beginning to teach reading in ESL/EFL.

Now, you still have the opportunity to get this eBook for FREE if you click on the link of the book before the starting of 25 Jan. 2019 (Cairo Time). By clicking on the link, you will subscribe to my blog and you will not only receive a link to your FREE copy of the book, but also you will be informed with updates on my blog regularly.

Get This eBook for FREE Now


You can also subscribe to my blog not only to get our latest posts delivered to your email box but also to get our FREE GIFT“How to teach and develop your students’ listening skill” guide.

Look down, write your email address, and then click “Subscribe”


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Who Else Wants My eBook for FREE Before 25 Jan. 2019

I’ve written this post to announce to all my readers and followers that I’m going to launch my eBook: “Teaching Beginning Reading to ESL/EFL Learners” for low price on 25 Jan. 2019.

Why I wrote this eBook:

I wrote it simply because many ESL/EFL teachers asked for it. They told me that most of their students are challenged with learning to read in English and they are constantly searching for the suitable techniques that can help their young learners read quickly and easily in English. So, I’ve decided to write this eBook to exchange my experience with the teachers on the techniques they should use in the classroom, the guidelines they should follow and the reading tasks that can get most students to read in ESL/EFL classes with ease and in a fairly short time.

What the eBook includes:

  • What reading is.
  • Approaches to teaching beginning reading.
  • Stages of teaching beginning reading.
  • Sample activities for beginning reading.
  • Guideline before beginning to teach reading in ESL/EFL.

How to get the eBook for FREE (Before 25 Jan. 2019):

Now, you still have the opportunity to get this eBook for FREE if you click on the link of the book before the starting of 25 Jan. 2019 (Cairo Time). By clicking on the link, you will subscribe to my blog and you will not only receive a link to your FREE copy of the book, but also you will be informed with updates on my blog regularly.

Why not to keep it FREE:

On 25 Jan. 2019, I’m going to sell this eBook to get some money to support and help me continue my mission of helping ESL/EFL teachers teach English language more effectively. I’m going to keep it low priced so that many teachers can afford it.

Get This eBook for FREE Now


Moreover, If you are interested in how to teach reading comprehension and want practical tips to do so in the classroom, you can buy my latest eBook: Teaching Reading Comprehension to ESL/EFL Learners: A Practical Classroom Guide With Sample Reading Lesson Plans. Although it costs little but it includes much benefit especially for ESL/EFL teachers who search for practical steps that engage their students in reading and produce positive results. The main ideas tackled in this eBook are:

  • The nature of reading comprehension.
  • What should be done before starting a reading lesson.
  • Reading comprehension strategies and activities.
  • How to work with a reading text.
  • How to plan a reading lesson (with a model reading lesson plan).
  • How to develop your students’ reading comprehension so as to be efficient & advanced.

By selling this eBook, you will not only have control on teaching reading comprehension in the classroom but also you will support me with little money to continue my mission of helping ESL/EFL teachers teach English language more effectively.

Buy This eBook

Characteristics of Learners with Implications for Education

What are the main characteristics of learners in each learning stage? How can awareness of these characteristics impact teaching in school?
The answers of these two important questions can be found in the new printable that I’ve recently published.
Go ahead to my printables library and download it.
Enjoy reading and learning
Mohamed Ramadan

Reminder: Printables library is password protected.  If you are one of my blog followers, you have already got the password to access my printables library for FREE. If you are not, and want to read my printables for FREE, Join my email list to receive the password to the library. I update my printables’ library regularly with new, focused and effective ELT printables.

Ready for FREE printables?

If you are interested in how to teach reading comprehension and want practical tips to do so in the classroom, you can buy my latest eBook: Teaching Reading Comprehension to ESL/EFL Learners: A Practical Classroom Guide With Sample Reading Lesson Plans. Although it costs little but it includes much benefit especially for ESL/EFL teachers who search for practical steps that engage their students in reading and produce positive results. The main ideas tackled in this eBook are:

  • The nature of reading comprehension.
  • What should be done before starting a reading lesson.
  • Reading comprehension strategies and activities.
  • How to work with a reading text.
  • How to plan a reading lesson (with a model reading lesson plan).
  • How to develop your students’ reading comprehension so as to be efficient & advanced.

By selling this eBook, you will not only have control on teaching reading comprehension in the classroom but also you will support me with little money to continue my mission of helping ESL/EFL teachers teach English language more effectively.

Buy My eBook


You can also subscribe to my blog not only to get our latest posts delivered to your email box but also to get our FREE GIFT“How to teach and develop your students’ listening skill” guide.

Look down, write your email address, and then click “Subscribe”


Subscribe to our Blog  

How You Can Motivate Your Students to Read in the Classroom

This post gives EFL teachers some tips on how to make the reading comprehension activity accessible and motivating for students, describing how to create the basic motivational conditions and generate the initial motivation for reading comprehension in the classroom.

Motivation is one of the key factors that provides the main incentive to learn a foreign language. Without sufficient motivation, students cannot achieve long-term goals even if they own the best of abilities. So, the role of teachers is not only teaching the curriculum, but also motivating their students.

For teaching reading, the mission of motivating students is a great challenge as they come with different emotional and psychological interests.  However, using authentic reading texts remains one way of motivating students and making the task of reading in a foreign language interesting for them.

Tips on creating the basic motivational conditions:

  • Create a pleasant and supportive learning environment. The friendly and supportive atmosphere will encourage students to develop their full potential and achieve required goals.
  • Set rules or a class contract between yourself and your class regarding behavior and norms which everyone agrees to.
  • Divide the class into groups depending on your knowledge about students’ interests, levels, skills and points of strength. Encourage peer support within these groups.

Tips on generating initial motivation & maintaining it:

  • Inform students of the reasons why they are being asked to read authentic texts and explain the benefits to them. E.g., exposure to real English, developing language awareness, promoting language competence, exposure to real-life vocabulary, developing knowledge of the culture of the target language and, overall, contributing to achieving long-term language learning goals. Tell students that they should enjoy while doing the reading activity.
  • Give a brief description of the reading text and try to make this description interesting and motivating.
  • Relate the reading task to students’ culture and general knowledge.
  • Give the needed information that help students’ understanding and learning of new vocabulary.
  • Make sure that the reading text is appropriate to students’ learning level. It is important as too low level of challenge can result in lack of interest, and too high level can lead to over-anxiety or stress. The word challenge here refers to the task which is not easy but that can be overcome by giving students needed support and encouragement.
  • Explain how to work with the reading text. E.g. There will be 2-minute-first-silent reading to do a pre-task, then there will be intensive reading for more details, etc.
  • Encourage students to think about their approaches to reading and how to build their confidence. All fears they may have about not understanding every word so you should emphasize that 100 percent comprehension is not necessary to understand the overall meaning. Encourage them to use all available and relevant clues from the language, the context and from the illustrations to help make sense of the reading text.
  • Train students on using reading comprehension strategies such as previewing, skimming and scanning, inferring meaning etc.
  • Provide a point of entry. This could be a scene from a story, an illustration or any paragraph can be looked at or read in class before starting the actual reading. This entry will help the reading material to be more accessible to students and sufficiently stimulating to arouse their interest in the setting, characters, and narration of the text It can provide a starting point and a future point of reference throughout the reading.
  • Provide a pre-reading task. This is before reading stage. E.g., previewing the title or the sub-headings. Pre-reading tasks can stimulate students’ interest, introduce characters and setting in a story, relate the text to what students already know, etc.
  • Inform students of the final goal of the reading activity, whether it is acting out a story, producing a poster, role-playing a dialogue, writing a summary or a letter, organizing a project, etc. Knowing that their work is leading towards something concrete and relevant can help students focus throughout the reading process.

If you want more practical tips to teach reading comprehension in the classroom, you can buy my latest eBook: Teaching Reading Comprehension to ESL/EFL Learners: A Practical Classroom Guide With Sample Reading Lesson Plans. Although it costs little but it includes much benefit especially for ESL/EFL teachers who search for practical steps that engage their students in reading and produce positive results. The main ideas tackled in this eBook are:

  • The nature of reading comprehension.
  • What should be done before starting a reading lesson.
  • Reading comprehension strategies and activities.
  • How to work with a reading text.
  • How to plan a reading lesson (with a model reading lesson plan).
  • How to develop your students’ reading comprehension so as to be efficient & advanced.

By selling this eBook, you will not only have control on teaching reading comprehension in the classroom but also you will support me with little money to continue my mission of helping ESL/EFL teachers teach English language more effectively.

Buy My eBook

How to Improve Your Vocabulary Thanks to 3 Easy Steps

Vocabulary is one of the keys to develop your language skills. With this in mind, you should decide to improve it and increase your stock. If you try the following three easy steps, I’m sure, you will make a success. Here they are:

1. Read and listen:

Step number one to improve your vocabulary is reading and listening to authentic English materials.

For reading, you should:

  • Read every day making reading in English a part of your daily routine.
  • Underline or write down each new word or phrase when you see it.
  • Guess the meaning of these new words from the context.
  • Look up new words in English-English dictionary focusing on the usage of each word.

And for listening, you should:

  • Listen to something you love and enjoy so that you will learn much more.
  • Write down each new word or phrase when you hear.
  • Listen on the go while you walk, work out, travel or work. You can then write down your new words or phrases when you get home.

2. Record the meanings:

Buy a notebook and make it your own dictionary. Don’t just write the meanings. You can write collocations, synonyms, antonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, etc.

3. Review regularly:

Make vocabulary review a part of your routine. It can be once or twice a week. Try to make it fun by using word games or you can be creative and use your new words to tell a story.

Ten Necessary English Language Teaching Strategies

The following are some teaching strategies that EFL teachers should use to help students in the classroom develop their proficiency in English especially when faced with new structure and vocabulary.

1. Encouraging the use of the language:

This should be the key component of each EFL class. Teachers must make sure that the language items are used correctly. To facilitate language usage, teachers must encourage different kinds of language practice. Individual words need to be put in sentences and students should be encouraged to express themselves using the learned language structures, too.

2. Doing behavioral activities:

Students must constantly give the teacher evidence of learning. To provide the teacher with evidence of learning, students must do some observable actions or behaviors that the teacher has requested. Throughout the lesson, the teacher must plan behavioral activities or tasks that give students opportunities to:

Observe, Recognize, Locate, Identify, Classify, Practice, Collect, Distinguish, Categorize, Repeat, Match, Show, Select, Construct, Assemble, Arrange, Put things in order, Etc. Name, Recall, Give Examples, Draw, Organize, Decide, Describe, Tell, Imagine, Restate, Create, Appraise, Dramatize, Contrast, Compare, Question, Map, Discriminate, Etc. List, Underline, Review, Interpret, Compose, Dictate, Point out, Record, Report, Predict, Express, Plan and Evaluate. Relate, Generalize, Demonstrate, Outline, Summarize, Suppose, Estimate, Judge, Explain, Debate, Illustrate, Infer, Revise, Rewrite, Assess, Justify, Critique, Etc.

All of the above are observable actions that teachers should encourage students to do within certain activities so that they can show evidence of their learning.

3. Activating prior knowledge:

Teachers must become very familiar with the background knowledge that students bring to the learning situation, so they can always emphasize what students already know, and build on this prior knowledge. Visuals, realia and all kinds of connections to previous lessons should be become essential components of all lessons.

4. Working in groups:

Teachers should plan the behavioral activities in ways that give students the opportunity to work in groups to achieve specific purposes. Teachers should encourage students to implement these varied activities in heterogeneous groups.

5. Dealing with aspects of culture:

EFL students have their own experiences and cultural backgrounds and they may come from different geographical parts, so teachers should acknowledge that first. Then they should affirm the value of difference among different cultures. Next, teachers should expand the limited cultural knowledge of students by tackling with different aspects of English-speaking people’s culture showing how these aspects affect their behavior and their ways of expression. While teachers are doing so, they should develop students’ awareness of their own culture.

6. Demonstrating and modeling:

It is another most important component in all English language lessons. The key role of the teacher is to demonstrate and model all the behaviors to be learned in the lesson, especially the verbal behaviors expected to be mastered by the students. All teachers must remember that for most English language learners, teachers are the only role models that students will ever come in contact with for the language items. In today’s world, few parents have the time or the energy – or the knowledge – to present the content of the language lessons. Only teachers can provide that.

7. Introducing the meanings:

All words must be understood before students listen or read. Thus, teachers, must help students acquire, practice, develop, learn, and master the new vocabulary before they listen or read. Visuals, realia, dramatization, or any other means can be used to help students master the new vocabulary before listening or reading begins. Graphic organizers are very important in this case, too as they can be used to help students become aware of the new words they are about to learn. Graphic organizers that group words in categories by meaning are the most effective means to introduce new words. Word definitions or looking up the meaning of words in a dictionary are not the most effective means to introduce new words. For younger learners pictures can be used with printed words.

8. Integrating the four language skills across the curriculum:

Students should have opportunities to:

  1. Listen to the new language of the lesson as the teacher uses visuals, realia, and other means to physically convey the meaning of the language.
  2. Speak the new language through active learning activities.
  3. Read the textbook or parts of the textbook or reading selection, and they should do that with understanding.
  4. Write about what they have learned answering the textbook questions in their own words.

When students have been provided fully integrated listening, speaking, reading and writing activities, they would provide clear evidence of learning the target language.

9. Developing higher order thinking skills:

In strategy No. 2, above, I indicated that students must be engaged in suggested behavioral activities that students can perform to give evidence of learning. These activities (listed in No. 2 above) describe simple to complex or higher order thinking skills. Students who can perform these observable behaviors are giving evidence that they are operating and developing from simple to complex or higher order thinking skills.

10. Questioning:

The most effective tool teachers use to implement all of the above strategies is the question. Every time a teacher asks a question the student must actively respond. Through questions, teachers can monitor student use of the language. Questions help assess prior knowledge and provide the most effective tool to obtain evidence of learning. Through questions teachers can provide new information to students while demonstrating and modeling the use of the language. Questions can be asked at the lowest – knowledge – and the highest – evaluation – levels of thinking skills. Questions help teachers provide opportunities for students to listen and speak.  In fact, questioning techniques allow teachers to have control of their classroom while helping students succeed. How? By controlling the level of language difficulty of the questions. A teacher can choose which question to ask a student depending on how much knowledge the student has. By choosing the right question appropriate for each student, teachers can promote learning while at the same time allow students to experience success.

These ten ELT strategies characterize effective EFL lessons and guarantee effective language learning and achieving different language learning objectives.

Using Video in The Classroom – Why and How?

There are many benefits of using video in the classroom. some of them are:

  • Students enjoy language learning with videos.
  • Using videos makes language learning a happy experience and creates an attractive enjoyable learning environment.
  • Using videos provides students with a good opportunity to study body language and learn more about feelings.
  • By watching videos students can learn by absorption and imitation.
  • Videos communicate meaning better than other media.
  • Videos present language in context in ways that students can see who’s (or what’s!) speaking, where the speakers are, what they’re doing, etc. All these visual clues can help comprehension.
  • Using videos represents a positive exploitation of technology and match with the positive attitude of students towards television and videos compared to using books.

The possible purposes of using video in the classroom:

Once the decision has been made to use a video in class, thought should be given to what purpose the video is being used for. There are some roles that the video can take in the classroom. Below are four possible roles for video in the classroom.

  • Developing listening skills: Listening for global understanding and listening for details.
  • Providing information: Providing content relevant to students’ needs and interests.
  • Presenting or reinforcing language: Grammar, vocabulary, functions.
  • Stimulating language production: As a basis for discussion, a model for learners to follow, a visual aid, … etc.

However, using a video in the classroom may include more than one of these roles. students may watch a video to find out information about, for example, a famous person. The same lesson may also include work on developing listening skills to enable students to extract the relevant information. It could then be used to develop vocabulary on the topic of ‘lives’.

Criteria for selecting a good video:

When selecting a video for use in the classroom, the following points should be kept in mind.

  • The video should be so interesting that a young native speaker wants to watch it.
  • The ideal video clip tells a complete story or section of a story so that students will get the enjoyment when watching the whole video.
  • The length of the video shouldn’t be too long, perhaps between 30 seconds and 10 minutes depending on the learning objective.
  • The content should be suitable for being viewed in the classroom in all cultures.

Moreover, It is better to use videos which have been adapted from books or come with ready-made materials that can be used for language teaching.

However, if the video will be used for presenting language or for comprehension tasks, the following further factors should be considered when selecting it.

  • The scenes should be very visual. The more visual a video is, the easier it is to understand – as long as the pictures illustrate what is being said.
  • The pictures and sound should be clear.
  • The language spoken in the video should not be difficult for students to comprehend. Grammatical structures, language functions, and colloquial expressions presented in the video should be suitable for students learning level and age.
  • The linguistic content should be linked to the language in the curriculum or the coursebook, thus providing a way to integrate video work into the course as a whole.
  • The language level of the video should be appropriate for the level of the class without the teacher having to explain too much.
  • It is good if there is a lot of repletion of the key language in the video.

What types of videos can you use?

There are a lot of types of videos you can use in the classroom. The following are some:

  • Animation/cartoons.
    Educational programmes.
  • TV documentaries made for children about science/nature etc.,
  • TV advertisements suitable for children.
  • Music for children.
  • Simple drama.

P.S. If you want to know the stages of using a video in the classroom, go to printables.

Reminder: Printables library is password protected.  If you are one of my blog followers, you have already got the password to access my printables library for FREE. If you are not, and want to read my printables for FREE, Join my email list to receive the password to the library. I update my printables’ page regularly with new, focused and effective ELT printables.

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Yes, I Want Access – Send Me the Password!


You can also subscribe to my blog not only to get our latest posts delivered to your email box but also to get our FREE GIFT“How to teach and develop your students’ listening skill” guide.

Look down, write your email address, and then click “Subscribe”


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Moreover, you can click the button below, fill in the form and submit it to receive a link – delivered to your email inbox within 24 hours – to a copy of my “Teaching Beginning Reading” FREE eBook.

 

Three New Printables Published

Now, three new ELT printables are available on elttguide.com

  • When and How to Correct Students’ Mistakes.

  • 20 Questions to Ask Yourself Before Printing Your Language Test.

  • Teaching Letter Writing – A Lesson Plan.

Reminder: Printables library is password protected.  If you are one of my blog followers, you have already got the password to access my printables library for FREE. If you are not, and want to read my printables for FREE, Join my email list to receive the password to the library.

I update my printables’ page regularly with new, focused and effective ELT printables.

Ready for FREE printables?

Yes, I Want Access – Send Me the Password!


P.S. You can subscribe to our blog not only to get our latest posts delivered to your email box but also to get our FREE GIFT“How to teach and develop your students’ listening skill” guide.

Look down, write your email address, and then click “Subscribe”


Subscribe to our Blog  


Moreover, you can click the button below, fill in the form and submit it to receive a link – delivered to your email inbox within 24 hours – to a copy of my “Teaching Beginning Reading” FREE eBook.

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